Mencius : Chapter 10 |
1. There came from Ch'û to T'ang one Hsü Hsing, who gave out that he acted
according to the words of Shan-nang. Coming right to his gate, he addressed the
duke Wan, saying, 'A man of a distant region, I have heard that you, Prince, are
practising a benevolent government, and I wish to receive a site for a house,
and to become one of your people.' The duke Wan gave him a dwelling-place. His
disciples, amounting to several tens, all wore clothes of haircloth, and made
sandals of hemp and wove mats for a living.
2. At the same time, Ch'an Hsiang, a disciple of Ch'an Liang, and his younger
brother, Hsin, with their plough-handles and shares on their backs, came from
Sung to T'ang, saying, 'We have heard that you, Prince, are putting into
practice the government of the ancient sages, showing that you are likewise a
sage. We wish to become the subjects of a sage.'
3. When Ch'an Hsiang saw Hsü Hsing, he was greatly pleased with him, and,
abandoning entirely whatever he had learned, became his disciple. Having an
interview with Mencius, he related to him with approbation the words of Hsü
Hsing to the following effect:-- 'The prince of T'ang is indeed a worthy prince.
He has not yet heard, however, the real doctrines of antiquity. Now, wise and
able princes should cultivate the ground equally and along with their people,
and eat the fruit of their labour. They should prepare their own meals, morning
and evening, while at the same time they carry on their government. But now, the
prince of T'ang has his granaries, treasuries, and arsenals, which is an
oppressing of the people to nourish himself. How can he be deemed a real worthy
4. Mencius said,'I suppose that Hsü Hsing sows grain and eats the produce. Is it
not so?' 'It is so,' was the answer. 'I suppose also he weaves cloth, and wears
his own manufacture. Is it not so?' 'No. Hsü wears clothes of haircloth.' 'Does
he wear a cap?' 'He wears a cap.' 'What kind of cap?' 'A plain cap.' 'Is it
woven by himself?' 'No. He gets it in exchange for grain.' 'Why does Hsü not
weave it himself?' 'That would injure his husbandry.' 'Does Hsü cook his food in
boilers and earthenware pans, and does he plough with an iron share?' 'Yes.'
'Does he make those articles himself?' 'No. He gets them in exchange for grain.'
5. Mencius then said, 'The getting those various articles in exchange for grain,
is not oppressive to the potter and the founder, and the potter and the founder
in their turn, in exchanging their various articles for grain, are not
oppressive to the husbandman. How should such a thing be supposed? And moreover,
why does not Hsü act the potter and founder, supplying himself with the articles
which he uses solely from his own establishment? Why does he go confusedly
dealing and exchanging with the handicraftsmen? Why does he not spare himself so
much trouble?' Ch'an Hsiang replied, 'The business of the handicraftsman can by
no means be carried on along with the business of husbandry.'
6. Mencius resumed, 'Then, is it the government of the kingdom which alone can
be carried on along with the practice of husbandry? Great men have their proper
business, and little men have their proper business. Moreover, in the case of
any single individual, whatever articles he can require are ready to his hand,
being produced by the various handicraftsmen:-- if he must first make them for
his own use, this way of doing would keep all the people running about upon the
roads. Hence, there is the saying, "Some labour with their minds, and some
labour with their strength. Those who labour with their minds govern others;
those who labour with their strength are governed by others. Those who are
governed by others support them; those who govern others are supported by them."
This is a principle universally recognised.
7. 'In the time of Yâo, when the world had not yet been perfectly reduced to
order, the vast waters, flowing out of their channels, made a universal
inundation. Vegetation was luxuriant, and birds and beasts swarmed. The various
kinds of grain could not be grown. The birds and beasts pressed upon men. The
paths marked by the feet of beasts and prints of birds crossed one another
throughout the Middle Kingdom. To Yâo alone this caused anxious sorrow. He
raised Shun to office, and measures to regulate the disorder were set forth.
Shun committed to Yî the direction of the fire to be employed, and Yî set fire
to, and consumed, the forests and vegetation on the mountains and in the
marshes, so that the birds and beasts fled away to hide themselves. Yü separated
the nine streams, cleared the courses of the Tsî and T'â, and led them all to
the sea. He opened a vent also for the Zû and Han, and regulated the course of
the Hwâ'i and Sze, so that they all flowed into the Chiang. When this was done,
it became possible for the people of the Middle Kingdom to cultivate the ground
and get food for themselves. During that time, Yü was eight years away from his
home, and though he thrice passed the door of it, he did not enter. Although he
had wished to cultivate the ground, could he have done so?'
8. 'The Minister of Agriculture taught the people to sow and reap, cultivating
the five kinds of grain. When the five kinds of grain were brought to maturity,
the people all obtained a subsistence. But men possess a moral nature; and if
they are well fed, warmly clad, and comfortably lodged, without being taught at
the same time, they become almost like the beasts. This was a subject of anxious
solicitude to the sage Shun, and he appointed Hsieh to be the Minister of
Instruction, to teach the relations of humanity:-- how, between father and son,
there should be affection; between sovereign and minister, righteousness;
between husband and wife, attention to their separate functions; between old and
young, a proper order; and between friends, fidelity. The high meritorious
sovereign said to him, "Encourage them; lead them on; rectify them; straighten
them; help them; give them wings:-- thus causing them to become possessors of
themselves. Then follow this up by stimulating them, and conferring benefits on
them." When the sages were exercising their solicitude for the people in this
way, had they leisure to cultivate the ground?
9. 'What Yâo felt giving him anxiety was the not getting Shun. What Shun felt
giving him anxiety was the not getting Yü and Kâo Yâo. But he whose anxiety is
about his hundred mâu not being properly cultivated, is a mere husbandman.
10. 'The imparting by a man to others of his wealth, is called "kindness." The
teaching others what is good, is called "the exercise of fidelity." The finding
a man who shall benefit the kingdom, is called "benevolence." Hence to give the
throne to another man would be easy; to find a man who shall benefit the kingdom
11. 'Confucius said, "Great indeed was Yâo as a sovereign. It is only Heaven
that is great, and only Yâo corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue! The
people could find no name for it. Princely indeed was Shun! How majestic was he,
having possession of the kingdom, and yet seeming as if it were nothing to him!"
In their governing the kingdom, were there no subjects on which Yâo and Shun
employed their minds? There were subjects, only they did not employ their minds
on the cultivation of the ground.
12. 'I have heard of men using the doctrines of our great land to change
barbarians, but I have never yet heard of any being changed by barbarians. Ch'an
Liang was a native of Ch'û. Pleased with the doctrines of Châu-kung and
Chung-nE, he came northwards to the Middle Kingdom and studied them. Among the
scholars of the northern regions, there was perhaps no one who excelled him. He
was what you call a scholar of high and distinguished qualities. You and your
brother followed him some tens of years, and when your master died, you
forthwith turned away from him.
13. 'Formerly, when Confucius died, after three vears had elapsed, his disciples
collected their baggage, and prepared to return to their several homes. But on
entering to take their leave of Tsze-kung, as they looked towards one another,
they wailed, till they all lost their voices. After this they returned to their
homes, but Tsze-kung went back, and built a house for himself on the
altar-ground, where he lived alone other three years, before he returned home.
On another occasion, Tsze-hsiâ, Tsze-chang, and Tsze-yû, thinking that Yû Zo
resembled the sage, wished to render to him the same observances which they had
rendered to Confucius. They tried to force the disciple Tsang to join with them,
but he said, "This may not be done. What has been washed in the waters of the
Chiang and Han, and bleached in the autumn sun:-- how glistening is it! Nothing
can be added to it."
14. 'Now here is this shrike-tongued barbarian of the south, whose doctrines are
not those of the ancient kings. You turn away from your master and become his
disciple. Your conduct is different indeed from that of the philosopher Tsang.
15. 'I have heard of birds leaving dark valleys to remove to lofty trees, but I
have not heard of their descending from lofty trees to enter into dark valleys.
16. 'In the Praise-songs of Lû it is said,
"He smote the barbarians of the west and the north,
He punished Ching and Shû."
Thus Châu-kung would be sure to smite them, and you become their disciple again;
it appears that your change is not good.'
17. Ch'an Hsiang said, 'If Hsü's doctrines were followed, then there would not
be two prices in the market, nor any deceit in the kingdom. If a boy of five
cubits were sent to the market, no one would impose on him; linen and silk of
the same length would be of the same price. So it would be with bundles of hemp
and silk, being of the same weight; with the different kinds of grain, being the
same in quantity; and with shoes which were of the same size.'
18. Mencius replied, 'It is the nature of things to be of unequal quality. Some
are twice, some five times, some ten times, some a hundred times, some a
thousand times, some ten thousand times as valuable as others. If you reduce
them all to the same standard, that must throw the kingdom into confusion. If
large shoes and small shoes were of the same price, who would make them? For
people to follow the doctrines of Hsü, would be for them to lead one another on
to practise deceit. How can they avail for the government of a State?'
1. The Mohist, Î Chih, sought, through Hsü Pî, to see Mencius. Mencius said, 'I
indeed wish to see him, but at present I am still unwell. When I am better, I
will myself go and see him. He need not come here again.'
2. Next day, Î Chih again sought to see Mencius. Mencius said, 'To-day I am able
to see him. But if I do not correct his errors, the true principles will not be
fully evident. Let me first correct him. I have heard that this Î is a Mohist.
Now Mo considers that in the regulation of funeral matters a spare simplicity
should be the rule. Î thinks with Mo's doctrines to change the customs of the
kingdom;-- how does he regard them as if they were wrong, and not honour them?
Notwithstanding his views, Î buried his parents in a sumptuous manner, and so he
served them in the way which his doctrines discountenance.'
3. The disciple Hsü informed Î of these remarks. Î said, 'Even according to the
principles of the learned, we find that the ancients acted towards the people
"as if they were watching over an infant." What does this expression mean? To me
it sounds that we are to love all without difference of degree; but the
manifestation of love must begin with our parents.' Hsü reported this reply to
Mencius, who said, 'Now, does Î really think that a man's affection for the
child of his brother is merely like his affection for the infant of a neighbour?
What is to be approved in that expression is simply this:-- that if an infant
crawling about is likely to fall into a well, it is no crime in the infant.
Moreover, Heaven gives birth to creatures in such a way that they have one root,
and Î makes them to have two roots. This is the cause of his error.
4. 'And, in the most ancient times, there were some who did not inter their
parents. When their parents died, they took them up and threw them into some
water-channel. Afterwards, when passing by them, they saw foxes and wild-cats
devouring them, and flies and gnats biting at them. The perspiration started out
upon their foreheads, and they looked away, unable to bear the sight. It was not
on account of other people that this perspiration flowed. The emotions of their
hearts affected their faces and eyes, and instantly they went home, and came
back with baskets and spades and covered the bodies. If the covering them thus
was indeed right, you may see that the filial son and virtuous man, in interring
in a handsome manner their parents, act according to a proper rule.'
5. The disciple Hsü informed Î of what Mencius had said. Î was thoughtful for a
short time, and then said, 'He has instructed me.'
Mencius : Chapter 10