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Akaranga Sutra

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Hot and cold

First lesson.


The unwise sleep, the sages always wake. Know, that in this world the (cause of) misery brings forth evil consequences! Knowing the course of the world, one should cease from violent acts. He who correctly possesses these (sensual perceptions), viz. sounds, and colours, and smells, and tastes, and touches


who self-possessed, wise, just, chaste, With right comprehension understands the world, he is to be called a sage, one who knows the law, and righteous. He knows the connection of the whirl (of births) and the Current (of sensation with love and hate). Not minding heat and cold, eqvanimous against pleasure and pain, the Nirgrantha does not feel the austerity of penance. Waking and free from hostility, a wise man, thou liberatest (thyself and others) from the miseries.


But a man always benighted, subject to old age and death, does not know the law. Seeing living beings suffering, earnestly enter a religious life. Considering this, O prudent one, look!


Knowing the misery that results from action,


The deluded and careless one returns to life;


Disregarding sounds and colours, upright,


Avoiding Mara one is liberated from death.


Carefully abstaining from pleasures and ceasing from bad works he is a hero, guarding himself, who is grounded in knowledge.


Examining karman and the root of karman, viz. killing, examining (it) and adopting its contrary, he is not seen by both ends. Knowing this, a wise man who knows the world and has cast off the idea of the world, should prudently conquer the obstructions to righteousness Thus I say.

Second lesson.


Look, Sir, at birth and old age here,


Examine and know the happiness of the living,


Thence the most learned, I knowing (what is called) the highest good,


He who has right intuition, commits no sin.


Undo the bond with mortals here;


He who lives by sins, is subject to both


Desirous of pleasures they heap up karman,


Influenced by it they are born again.


Killing (animals) he thinks good sport, and derives mirth from it:


Away with that fool's company, he increases his own unrighteousness.


Thence the most learned, knowing (what is called) the highest good,


Aware of the punishment, commits no sin;


Wisely avoid the top and the root!


Cutting them off, he knows himself free from karman.


That man will be liberated from death; he is a sage who sees the danger, knowing the highest good in this world, leading a circumspect life, calm, guarded, endowed (with knowledge), always restrained, longing for death, he should lead a religious life. Manifold, indeed, appear sinful actions; therefore prove constant to truth ! Delighting in it, a wise nian destroys all karman.


Many, indeed, are the plans Of this man (of the world); he will satisfy his desires; he (thereby causes) the slaughter of others, the pain of others, the punishment of others, the slaughter, the blame, the punishment of a whole province. Doing such things, some have exerted themselves.


Therefore the second (i.e. the wrong creed) is not adhered to. The knowing one seeing the vanity (of the world) [knowing the rise and fall of the souls], the Brahman follows the unrivalled (control of the Gainas). He should not kill, nor cause others to kill, nor consent to the killing of others. 'Avoid gaiety, not delighting in creatures (i.e. women), having the highest intuition,' keeping off from sinful acts.


And the hero should conquer wrath and pride,


Look at the great hell (as the place) for greed.


Therefore the hero abstaining from killing,


Should destroy sorrow, going the road of easiness


Here now the hero, knowing the bondage,


Knowing sorrow, should restrain himself.


Having risen to birth among men,


He should not take the life of living beings.

Third lesson.


Knowing the connection of the world, (carelessness is not for his benefit).' 'Look at the exterior (world from analogy with thy own) self; [then] thou wilt neither kill nor destroy (living beings);' viz. out of reciprocal regard [well examining] he does no sinful act. What is the characteristic of a sage?' Recognising the equality (of all living beings), he appeases himself.'


Knowing the highest good, onc should never be careless;


Guarding one's self, always prudent, one should pass life on the right road.


'One should acquire disregard of sensual enjoyment, being with a great one (i.e. a god) or the small ones (men).' When one knows whence men come and where they go, and when both ends are out of sight, one is not cut, nor slit, nor burnt, nor struck


Some do not remember what preceded the present: 'what has been his past? what will be his future?' Some men here say: 'what has been his past, that will be his future.'


There is no past thing, nor is there a future one


So opine the Tathagatas.


He whose karman has ceased and conduct is right, who recognises the truth (stated above) and destroys sinfulness (thinks):


What is discontent and what is pleasure? not subject to either, one should live;


Giving up all gaiety, circumspect and restrained, one should lead a religious life.


Man! Thou art thy own friend; why wishest thou for a friend beyond thyself? Whom he knows as a dweller on high, him he should know as a dweller far (from sin); and whom he knows as a dweller far (from sin), him he should know as a dweller on high. Man! restraining thyself (from the outward world) 'thou wilt get free from pain.' Man, understand well the truth! exerting himself in the rule of truth a wise man overcomes Mara.


'The gifted man, following the law, sees well his true interest.' In a twofold ways, for the sake of life's splendour, honour and glory (some men exert themselves), wherein they go astray. The gifted, touched by calamity, are not confounded. 'Mind this! the worthy one, in this world, gets out of thr creation' Thus I say.

Fourth lesson.


That man (i.e. the liberated) conquers wrath, pride, deceit, and greed. This is the doctrine of the Seer who does not injure living beings and has put an end (to acts and to samsara). Preventing propensity to sin destroys former actions. He who knows one thing, knows all things; and he who knows all things, knows one thing. He who is careless in all respects, is in danger; he who is not careless in all respects, is free from danger.


He who conquers one (passion), conquers many; and he who conquers many, conquers one. 'Knowing the misery of the world' rejecting the connection with the world, 'the heroes go on the great journey,' they rise gradually; 'they do not desire life.'


He who avoids one (passion), avoids (them all) severally; and he who avoids them severally, avoids one. Faithful according to the commandment (of the Tirthakaras), wise, and understanding the world according to the commandment - such a man is without danger from anywhere. There are degrees in injurious acts, but there are no degrees in control.


He who knows wrath, knows pride; he who knows pride, knows deceit; he who knows deceit, knows greed; he who knows greed, knows love; he who knows love, knows hate; he who knows hate, knows delusion; he who knows delusion, knows conception; he who knows 'conception, knows birth; he who knows birth, knows death; he who knows death, knows hell; he who knows hell, knows animal existence; he who knows animal existence, knows pain.


Therefore, a wise man should avoid wrath, pride, deceit, greed, love, hate, delusion, conception, birth, death, hell, animal existence, and pain.


This is the doctrine of the Seer, who does not injure living beings and has put an end (to acts and to samsara). Preventing the propensity to sin destroys former actions. Is there any worldly weakness in the Seer? There exists none, there is none. Thus I say.


End of the Third Lecture, called Hot and Cold.

Hot and cold

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