Mencius : Chapter 7 |
1. Mencius said, 'Opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to
advantages of situation afforded by the Earth, and advantages of situation
afforded by the Earth are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men.
2. 'There is a city, with an inner wall of three lî in circumference, and an
outer wall of seven.-- The enemy surround and attack it, but they are not able
to take it. Now, to surround and attack it, there must have been vouchsafed to
them by Heaven the opportunity of time, and in such case their not taking it is
because opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages
of situation afforded by the Earth.
3. 'There is a city, whose walls are distinguished for their height, and whose
moats are distinguished for their depth, where the arms of its defenders,
offensive and defensive, are distinguished for their strength and sharpness, and
the stores of rice and other grain are very large. Yet it is obliged to be given
up and abandoned. This is because advantages of situation afforded by the Earth
are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men.
4. 'In accordance with these principles it is said, "A people is bounded in, not
by the limits of dykes and borders; a State is secured, not by the strengths of
mountains and rivers; the kingdom is overawed, not by the sharpness and strength
of arms." He who finds the proper course has many to assist him. He who loses
the proper course has few to assist him. When this,-- the being assisted by
few,-- reaches its extreme point, his own relations revolt from the prince. When
the being assisted by many reaches its highest point, the whole kingdom becomes
obedient to the prince.
5. 'When one to whom the whole kingdom is prepared to be obedient, attacks those
from whom their own relations revolt, what must be the result? Therefore, the
true ruler will prefer not to fight; but if he do fight, he must overcome.'
1. As Mencius was about to go to court to see the king, the king sent a person
to him with this message,-- 'I was wishing to come and see you. But I have got a
cold, and may not expose myself to the wind. In the morning I will hold my
court. I do not know whether you will give me the opportunity of seeing you
then.' Mencius replied, 'Unfortunately, I am unwell, and not able to go to the
2. Next day, he went out to pay a visit of condolence to some one of the
Tung-kwoh family, when Kung-sun Ch'âu said to him, 'Yesterday, you declined
going to the court on the ground of being unwell, and to-day you are going to
pay a visit of condolence. May this not be regarded as improper?' 'Yesterday,'
said Mencius, 'I was unwell; to-day, I am better:-- why should I not pay this
3. In the mean time, the king sent a messenger to inquire about his sickness,
and also a physician. Mang Chung replied to them, 'Yesterday, when the king's
order came, he was feeling a little unwell, and could not go to the court.
To-day he was a little better, and hastened to go to court. I do not know
whether he can have reached it by this time or not.' Having said this, he sent
several men to look for Mencius on the way, and say to him, 'I beg that, before
you return home, you will go to the court.'
4. On this, Mencius felt himself compelled to go to Ching Ch'âu's, and there
stop the night. Mr. Ching said to him, 'In the family, there is the relation of
father and son; abroad, there is the relation of prince and minister. These are
the two great relations among men. Between father and son the ruling principle
is kindness. Between prince and minister the ruling principle is respect. I have
seen the respect of the king to you, Sir, but I have not seen in what way you
show respect to him.' Mencius replied, 'Oh! what words are these? Among the
people of Ch'î there is no one who speaks to the king about benevolence and
righteousness. Are they thus silent because they do not think that benevolence
and righteousness are admirable? No, but in their hearts they say, "This man is
not fit to be spoken with about benevolence and righteousness." Thus they
manifest a disrespect than which there can be none greater. I do not dare to set
forth before the king any but the ways of Yâo and Shun. There is therefore no
man of Ch'î who respects the king so much as I do.'
5. Mr. Ching said, 'Not so. That was not what I meant. In the Book of Rites it
is said, "When a father calls, the answer must be without a moment's hesitation.
When the prince's order calls, the carriage must not be waited for." You were
certainly going to the court, but when you heard the king's order, then you did
not carry your purpose out. This does seem as if it were not in accordance with
that rule of propriety.'
6. Mencius answered him, 'How can you give that meaning to my conduct? The
philosopher Tsang said, "The wealth of Tsin and Ch'û cannot be equalled. Let
their rulers have their wealth:-- I have my benevolence. Let them have their
nobility:-- I have my righteousness. Wherein should I be dissatisfied as
inferior to them?" Now shall we say that these sentiments are not right? Seeing
that the philosopher Tsang spoke them, there is in them, I apprehend, a real
principle.-- In the kingdom there are three things universally acknowledged to
be honourable. Nobility is one of them; age is one of them; virtue is one of
them. In courts, nobility holds the first place of the three; in villages, age
holds the first place; and for helping one's generation and presiding over the
people, the other two are not equal to virtue. How can the possession of only
one of these be presumed on to despise one who possesses the other two?
7. 'Therefore a prince who is to accomplish great deeds will certainly have
ministers whom he does not call to go to him. When he wishes to consult with
them, he goes to them. The prince who does not honour the virtuous, and delight
in their ways of doing, to this extent, is not worth having to do with.
8. 'Accordingly, there was the behaviour of T'ang to Î Yin:-- he first learned
of him, and then employed him as his minister; and so without difficulty he
became sovereign. There was the behaviour of the duke Hwan to Kwan Chung:-- he
first learned of him, and then employed him as his minister; and so without
difficulty he became chief of all the princes.
9. 'Now throughout the kingdom, the territories of the princes are of equal
extent, and in their achievements they are on a level. Not one of them is able
to exceed the others. This is from no other reason, but that they love to make
ministers of those whom they teach, and do not love to make ministers of those
by whom they might be taught.
10. 'So did T'ang behave to Î Yin, and the duke Hwan to Kwan Chung, that they
would not venture to call them to go to them. If Kwan Chung might not be called
to him by his prince, how much less may he be called, who would not play the
part of Kwan Chung!'
1. Ch'an Tsin asked Mencius, saying, 'Formerly, when you were in Ch'î, the king
sent you a present Of 2,400 taels of fine silver, and you refused to accept it.
When you were in Sung, 1,680 taels were sent to you, which you accepted; and
when you were in Hsieh, 1,200 taels were sent, which you likewise accepted. If
your declining to accept the gift in the first case was right, your accepting it
in the latter cases was wrong. If your accepting it in the latter cases was
right, your declining to do so in the first case was wrong. You must accept,
Master, one of these alternatives.'
2. Mencius said, 'I did right in all the cases.
3. 'When I was in Sung, I was about to take a long journey. Travellers must be
provided with what is necessary for their expenses. The prince's message was, 'A
present against travelling-expenses." Why should I have declined the gift?
4. 'When I was in Hsieh, I was apprehensive for my safety, and taking measures
for my protection. The message was, "I have heard that you are taking measures
to protect yourself, and send this to help you in procuring arms." Why should I
have declined the gift?
5. 'But when I was in Ch'i, I had no occasion for money. To send a man a gift
when he has no occasion for it, is to bribe him. How is it possible that a
superior man should be taken with a bribe?'
1. Mencius having gone to P'ing-lû, addressed the governor of it, saying, 'If
one of your spearmen should lose his place in the ranks three times in one day,
would you, Sir, put him to death or not?' 'I would not wait for three times to
do so,' was the reply.
2. Mencius said, 'Well then, you, Sir, have likewise lost your place in the
ranks many times. In bad calamitous years, and years of famine, the old and
feeble of your people, who have been found lying in the ditches and
water-channels, and the able-bodied, who have been scattered about to the four
quarters, have amounted to several thousand.' The governor replied, 'That is a
state of things in which it does not belong to me Chü-hsin to act.'
3. 'Here,' said Mencius, 'is a man who receives charge of the cattle and sheep
of another, and undertakes to feed them for him;-- of course he must search for
pasture-ground and grass for them. If, after searching for those, he cannot find
them, will he return his charge to the owner? or will he stand by and see them
die?' 'Herein,' said the officer, 'I am guilty.'
4. Another day, Mencius had an audience of the king, and said to him, 'Of the
governors of your Majesty's cities I am acquainted with five, but the only one
of them who knows his faults is K'ung Chü-hsin.' He then repeated the
conversation to the king, who said, 'In this matter, I am the guilty one.'
1. Mencius said to Ch'î Wâ, 'There seemed to be reason in your declining the
governorship of Ling-ch'iû, and requesting to be appointed chief criminal judge,
because the latter office would afford you the opportunity of speaking your
views. Now several months have elapsed, and have you yet found nothing of which
you might speak?'
2. On this, Ch'î Wâ remonstrated on some matter with the king, and, his counsel
not being taken, resigned his office and went away.
3. The people of Ch'î said, 'In the course which he marked out for Ch'î Wâ he
did well, but we do not know as to the course which he pursues for himself.'
4. His disciple Kung-tû told him these remarks.
5. Mencius said, 'I have heard that he who is in charge of an office, when he is
prevented from fulfilling its duties, ought to take his departure, and that he
on whom is the responsibility of giving his opinion, when he finds his words
unattended to, ought to do the same. But I am in charge of no office; on me
devolves no duty of speaking out my opinion:-- may not I therefore act freely
and without any constraint, either in going forward or in retiring?'
2. Kung-sun Ch'âu. said to Mencius, 'The position of a high dignitary of Ch'î is
not a small one; the road from Ch'î to T'ang is not short. How was it that
during all the way there and back, you never spoke to Hwan about the matters of
your mission?' Mencius replied, 'There were the proper officers who attended to
them. What occasion had I to speak to him about them?'
Mencius : Chapter 7