Chapter 17 : Shradhatray Vibhag Yog |
O Krishna, what is the situation of those who do not follow the principles
of scripture but worship according to their own imagination? Are they in
goodness, in passion or in ignorance?
Personality of Godhead said: According to the modes of nature acquired
by the embodied soul, one's faith can be of three kinds -- in goodness,
in passion or in ignorance. Now hear about this.
O son of Bharata,
according to one's existence under the various modes of nature, one evolves
a particular kind of faith. The living being is said to be of a particular
faith according to the modes he has acquired.
Men in the
mode of goodness worship the demigods; those in the mode of passion worship
the demons; and those in the mode of ignorance worship ghosts and spirits.
undergo severe austerities and penances not recommended in the scriptures,
performing them out of pride and egoism, who are impelled by lust and attachment,
who are foolish and who torture the material elements of the body as well
as the Supersoul dwelling within, are to be known as demons.
Even the food
each person prefers is of three kinds, according to the three modes of
material nature. The same is true of sacrifices, austerities and charity.
Now hear of the distinctions between them.
to those in the mode of goodness increase the duration of life, purify
one's existence and give strength, health, happiness and satisfaction.
Such foods are juicy, fatty, wholesome, and pleasing to the heart.
are too bitter, too sour, salty, hot, pungent, dry and burning are dear
to those in the mode of passion. Such foods cause distress, misery and
more than three hours before being eaten, food that is tasteless, decomposed
and putrid, and food consisting of remnants and untouchable things is dear
to those in the mode of darkness.
the sacrifice performed according to the directions of scripture, as a
matter of duty, by those who desire no reward, is of the nature of goodness.
But the sacrifice
performed for some material benefit, or for the sake of pride, O chief
of the Bharatas, you should know to be in the mode of passion.
performed without regard for the directions of scripture, without distribution
of prasadam [spiritual food], without chanting of Vedic hymns and remunerations
to the priests, and without faith is considered to be in the mode of ignorance.
of the body consists in worship of the Supreme Lord, the brahmanas, the
spiritual master, and superiors like the father and mother, and in cleanliness,
simplicity, celibacy and nonviolence.
of speech consists in speaking words that are truthful, pleasing, beneficial,
and not agitating to others, and also in regularly reciting Vedic literature.
simplicity, gravity, self-control and purification of one's existence are
the austerities of the mind.
austerity, performed with transcendental faith by men not expecting material
benefits but engaged only for the sake of the Supreme, is called austerity
out of pride and for the sake of gaining respect, honor and worship is
said to be in the mode of passion. It is neither stable nor permanent.
out of foolishness, with self-torture or to destroy or injure others, is
said to be in the mode of ignorance.
out of duty, without expectation of return, at the proper time and place,
and to a worthy person is considered to be in the mode of goodness.
performed with the expectation of some return, or with a desire for fruitive
results, or in a grudging mood, is said to be charity in the mode of passion.
performed at an impure place, at an improper time, to unworthy persons,
or without proper attention and respect is said to be in the mode of ignorance.
From the beginning
of creation, the three words om tat sat were used to indicate the Supreme
Absolute Truth. These three symbolic representations were used by brahmanas
while chanting the hymns of the Vedas and during sacrifices for the satisfaction
of the Supreme.
transcendentalists undertaking performances of sacrifice, charity and penance
in accordance with scriptural regulations begin always with om, to attain
fruitive results, one should perform various kinds of sacrifice, penance
and charity with the word tat. The purpose of such transcendental activities
is to get free from material entanglement.
Truth is the objective of devotional sacrifice, and it is indicated by
the word sat. The performer of such sacrifice is also called sat, as are
all works of sacrifice, penance and charity which, true to the absolute
nature, are performed to please the Supreme Person, O son of Prtha.
as sacrifice, charity or penance without faith in the Supreme, O son of
Prtha, is impermanent. It is called asat and is useless both in this life
and the next.
Shradhatray Vibhag Yog