I say: To friendly or hostile (heretics) one should not give food, drink, dainties and spices, clothes, alms-bowls, and brooms; nor exhort these persons to give (such things), nor do them service, always showing the highest respect. Thus I say.
(A heretic may say): Know this for certain having or not having received food (down to) brooms, having or not having eaten (come to our house), even turning from your way or passing (other houses; we shall supply your wants). Confessing an individual creed, coming and going, he may give, or exhort to give, or do service (but one should not accept anything from him), showing not the slightest respect. Thus I say.
Some here are not well instructed as regards the subject of conduct; for desirous of acts, they say: ' Kill creatures;' they themselves kill or consent to the killing of others; or they take what has not been given; or they pronounce opinions, e.g. the world exists, the world does not exist, the world is unchangeable, the world is ever changing; the world has a beginning, the world has no beginning; the world has an end, the world has no end; (or with regard to the self and actions): this is well done, this is badly done; this is merit, this is demerit; he is a good man, he is not a good man; there is beatitude, there is no beatitude; there is a hell, there is no hell. When they thus differ (in their opinions) and profess their individual persuasion, know (that this is all) without reason. Thus they are not well taught, not well instructed in the religion such as it has been declared by the Revered One, who knows and sees with quick discernment. (One should either instruct the opponent in the true faith) or observe abstinence as regards speech. Thus I say.
Everywhere sins are admitted; but to avoid them is called my distinction. For ye who live in a village or in the forest, or not in a vitlage and not in the forest, know the law as it has been declared. 'By the Brahman, the wise (Mahavira), three vows have been enjoined.' Noble and tranquil men who are enlightened and exert themselves in these (precepts), are called free from sinful acts,
Knowing (and renouncing) severally and singly the actions against living beings, in the regions above, below, and on the surface, everywhere and in all ways-a wise man neither gives pain to these bodies, nor orders others to do so, nor assents to their doing so. Nay, we abhor those who give pain to these bodies. Knowing this, a wise man should not cause this or any other pain (to any creatures). Thus I say.
A mendicant may exert himself, or stand or sit or lie in a burying-place or in an empty house or in a mountain cave or in a potter's workshop. A householder may approach a mendicant who stays in any of these places, and say unto him: O long-lived Sramana! I shall give you what I have bought or stolen or taken, though it was not to be taken, nor given, but was taken by force, viz. food, drink, dainties and spices, clothes, an alms-bowl, a plaid, a broom-by acting sinfully against all sorts of living beings; or I shall prepare you snug lodgings; eat (the offered food), dwell (in the prepared house').
O long-lived Sramana! A mendicant should thus refuse a householder of good sense and ripe age - O long-lived householder! I do not approve of thy words, I do not accept thy words, that, for my sake, thou givest unto me what thou hast bought or stolen or taken, though it was not to be taken, nor given, but was taken by force, viz. food, drink, dainties and spices, clothes, an alms-bowl, a plaid, a broom-by acting sinfully against all sorts of living beings; or that thou preparest pleasant lodgings for me. O long-lived householder! I have given up this, because it is not to be done.
A mendicant may exert himself. A householder, without betraying his intention, may approach him who stays in some one of the above-mentioned places, and give unto him what has been taken (all as above, down to) or prepare pleasant lodgings, and accommodate the mendicant with food (and lodging). A mendicant should know it by his own innate intelligence, or through the instruction of the highest (i. e. the Tirthakaras), or having heard it from others: This householder, forsooth, for my sake injures all sorts of living beings, to give me food, clothes, or to prepare pleasant lodgings. A mendicant should well observe and understand this, that he may order (the householder) not to show such obsequiousness. Thus I say.
Those who having, with or without the mendicant's knowledge, brought together fetters, become angry (on the monk's refusal) and will strike him, saying: Beat, kill, cut, burn, roast, tear, rob, despatch, torture him! But the hero, come to such a lot, will bravely bear it, or tell him the code of conduct, considering that he is of a different habit; or by guarding his. speech he should in due order examine the subject, guarding himself.
This has been declared by the awakened ones: The faithful should not give to dissenters food, clothes, nor should they exhort them (to give), nor do them service, always showing the highest respect. Thus I say.
Know the law declared by the wise Brahmana: one should give to one of the same faith food, clothes and one should exhort him (to give) or do him service, always showing the highest respect. Thus I say.
Some are awakened as middle-aged men and exert themselves well, having, as clever men, heard and received the word of the learned. The noble ones have impartially preached the law. Those who are awakened, should not wish for pleasure, nor do harm, nor desire (any forbidden things). A person who is without desires and does no harm unto any living beings in the whole world, is called by me 'unfettered.'
One free from passions understands perfectly the bright one, knowing birth in the upper and nether regions.
'Bodies increase through nourishment, they are frail in hardships.' See some whose organs are failing (give way to weakness).
A person who has no desires, cherishes pity. He who understands the doctrine of sin, is a mendicant who knows the time, the strength, the measure, the occasion, the conduct, the religious precept; he disowns all things not requisite for religious purposes, in time exerts himself, is under no obligations; he proceeds securely (on the road to final liberation) after having cut off both (love and hate)'.
A householder approaching a mendicant whose limbs tremble for cold, may say:
O long-lived Sramana! are you not subject to the influences of your senses?
O long-lived householder! I am not subject to the influences of my senses. But I cannot sustain the feeling of cold. Yet it does not become me to kindle or light a fire, that I may warm or heat myself; nor (to procure that comfort) through the order of others.
Perhaps after the mendicant has spoken thus, the other kindles or lights a fire that he may warm or heat himself. But the mendicant should well observe and understand this, that he may order him to show no such obsequiousness. Thus I say.
A mendicant who is fitted out with three robes, and a bowl as fourth (article), will not think: I shall beg for a fourth robe. He should beg for (clothes) which he wants, and which are permitted by the religious code; he should wear the clothes in the same state in which they are given him; he should neither wash nor dye them, nor should he wear washed or dyed clothes, nor (should he) hide (his garments when passing) through other villages, being careless of dress. This is the whole duty of one who wears clothes. But know further, that, after winter is gone and the hot season has come, one should leave off the used-up (garment of the three), being clad with 'an upper and under garment, or with the undermost garment, or with one gown, or with no clothes-aspiring to freedom from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects conform to it.
When it occurs to a blessed mendicant that he suffers pain, and cannot bear the influence of cold, he should not try to obviate these trials, but stand fast in his own self which is endowed with all knowledge. 'For it is better for an ascetic that he should take poison.' Even thus he will in due time put an end to existence. This (way to escape trials) has been adopted by many who were free from delusion; it is good, wholesome, proper, beatifying, meritorious. Thus I say.
A mendicant who is fitted out with two robes, and a bowl as third (article), will not think: I shall beg for a third robe. He should beg for robes which are allowed to be begged for; he should wear the clothes. This is the whole outfit of one who wears clothes. But know further, that after the winter is gone and the hot season has come, one should leave off the used-up garments; having left off the used-up garments, (one should) be clad with the undermost garment, with a gown, or with no clothes at all-aspiring to freedom from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects conform to it.
When the thought occurs to a mendicant that through illness he is too weak, and.not able to beg from house to house-and on-his thus complaining a householder brings food, obtained (without injuring life), and gives it him-then he should, after deliberation, say: O long-lived householder! it does not become me to eat or drink this food, or (accept) anything else of the same kind.
A mendicant who has resolved, that he will, when sick, accept the assistance of fellow-ascetics in good health, when they offer (assistance) without being asked, and that vice versa he, when in health, will give assistance to sick fellow-ascetics, offering it without being asked-(he should not deviate from his resolution though he die for want of help).
Taking the vow to beg (food) for another (who is sick), and to eat (when sick) what is brought by another; taking the vow to beg and not to eat what is brought; taking the vow not to beg but to eat what is brought; taking the vow neither to beg nor to eat what is brought (one should adhere to that vow). Practising thus the law as it has been declared, one becomes tranquil, averted from sin, guarded against the allurements of the senses. Even thus (though sick) he will in due time put an end to existence. This (method) has been adopted by many who were free from delusion; it is good, wholesome, proper, beatifying, meritorious. Thus I say.
A mendicant who is fitted out with one robe, and a bowl as second (article), will not think: I shall beg for a second robe. He should beg for such a robe only as is allowed to be begged for, and he should wear it in the same state as he receives it.
But when the hot season has come, one should leave off the used-up clothes; one should be clad with one or no garment-aspiring to freedom from bonds. Knowing what the Revered One.
When the thought occurs to a mendicant: 'I am myself, alone; I have nobody belonging to me, nor do I belong to anybody,' then he should thoroughly know himself as standing alone-aspiring to freedom from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects conform to it.
A male or female mendicant eating food. should not shift (the morsel) from the left jaw to the right jaw, nor from the right jaw to the left jaw, to get a fuller taste of it, not caring for the taste (of it)-aspiring to freedom from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects conform to it.
If this thought occurs to a monk: 'I am sick and not able, at this time, to regularly mortify the flesh,' that monk should regularly reduce his food; regularly reducing his food, and diminishing his sins, 'he should take proper care of his body, being immovable like a beam; exerting himself he dissolves his body.'
Entering a village, or a scot-free town, or a town with an earth-wall, or a town with a small wall, or an isolated town, or a large town, or a sea-town, or a mine, or a hermitage, or the halting-places of processions, or caravans, or a capital-a monk should beg for straw; having begged for straw he should retire with it to a secluded spot. After having repeatedly examined and cleaned the ground, where there are no eggs, nor living beings, nor seeds, nor sprouts, nor dew, nor water, nor ants, nor mildew, nor waterdrops, nor mud, nor cobwebs he should spread the straw on it. Then he should there and then effect (the religious death called) itvara [fasting to death while keeping within a limited space].
This is the truth: speaking truth, free from passion, crossing (the samsara), abating irresoluteness,
Knowing all truth and not being known, leaving this frail body, overcoming all sorts of pains and troubles through trust in this (religion), he accomplishes this fearful (religious death). Even thus he will in due time put an end to existence. This has been adopted by many who were free from delusion; it is good, wholesome, proper, beatifying, meritorious. Thus I say.
To a naked monk the thought occurs: I can bear the pricking of grass, the influence of cold and heat, the stinging of flies and mosquitos; these and other various painful feelings I can sustain, but I cannot leave off the covering of the privities. Then he may cover his privities with a piece of cloth '.
A naked monk who perseveres in this conduct, sustains repeatedly these and other various painful feelings: the grass pricks him, heat and cold attack him, flies and mosquitos sting him. A naked monk (should be) aspiring to freedom from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly and in all respects conform to it.
A monk who has come to any of the following resolutions,-having collected food. I shall give of it to other monks, and I shall eat (what they have) brought; (or) having collected food. I shall give of it to other monks, but I shall. not eat (what they have) brought; (or) having collected food. I shall not give of it to other monks, but I shall eat (what they have) brought; (or) having collected food. I shall not give of it to other monks, nor eat (what they have) brought;
(or) I shall assist a fellow-ascetic with the remnants of my dinner, which is acceptable and remained in the same state in which it was received, and I shall accept the assistance of fellow-ascetics as regards the remnants of their dinner, which is acceptable and remained in the same state in which it was received;,(that monk should keep these vows even if he should run the risk of his life) - aspiring to freedom from bonds. Penance suits him. Knowing what the Revered One has declared, one should thoroughly conform to it.
(The last two paragraphs of the last lesson are to be reproduced here.)
Thus I say.
The wise ones who attain in due order to one of the unerring states (in which suicide is prescribed), those who are rich in control and endowed with knowledge, knowing the incomparable (religious death, should continue their contemplation).
Knowing the twofold (obstacleso i.e. bodily and mental), the wise ones, having thoroughly learned the law, perceiving in due order (ihat the time for their death has come), get rid of karman.
Subduing the passions and living on little food, he should endure (hardships). If a mendicant falls sick, let him again take food.
Be should not long for life, nor wish for death; he should yearn after neither, life or death.
He who is indifferent and wishes for the destruction of karman, should continue his contemplation.
Becoming unattached internally and externally, he should strive after absolute purity.
Whatever means one knows for calming one's own life, that a wise man should learn (i. e. practise) in order to gain time (for continuing penance).
In a village or in a forest, examining the ground and recognising it as free from living beings, the sage should spread the straw.
Without food he should he down and bear the pains which attack him. He should not for too long time give way to worldly feelings which overcome him.
When crawling animals or such as live on high or below, feed on his flesh and blood, he should neither kill them nor rub (the wound).
Though these animals destroy the body, he should not stir from his position. After the Asravas have ceased, he should bear (pains) as if he rejoiced in them.
When the bonds fall off, then he has accomplished his life.
(We shall now describe) a more exalted (method) for a well-controlled and instructed monk.
This other law has been proclaimed by Gñatriputra:
He should give up all motions except his own in the thrice-threefold way.
He should not lie on sprouts of grass, but inspecting the bare ground he should lie on it.
Without any comfort and food, he should there bear pain.
When the sage becomes weak in his limbs, he should strive after calmness.
For he is blameless, who is well fixed and immovable (in his intention to die).
He should move to and fro (on his ground), contract and stretch (his limbs) for the benefit of the whole body; or (he should remain quiet as if he were) lifeless.
He should walk about, when tired of (lying), or stand with passive limbs; when tired of standing, he should sit down.
Intent on such an uncommon death, he should regulate the motions of his organs.
Having attained a place swarming with insects, he should search for a clean spot.
He should not remain there whence sin would rise.
He should raise himself above (sinfulness), and bear all pains.
And this is a still more difficult method, when one lives according to it: not to stir from one's place, while checking all motions of the body.
This is the highest law, exalted above the preceding method:
Having examined a spot of bare ground he should remain there; stay O Brahmana!
Having attained a place free from living beings, he should there fix himself.
He should thoroughly mortify his flesh, thinking: There are no obstacles in my body.
Knowing as long as be lives the dangers and troubles, the wise and restrained (ascetic) should bear them as being instrumental to the dissolution of the body.
He should not be attached to the transitory pleasures, nor to the greater ones; he should not nourish desire and greed, looking only for eternal praise.
He should be enlightened with eternal objectss, and not trust in the delusive power of the gods;
a Brahmana should know of this and cast off all inferiority.
Not devoted to any of the external objects he reaches the end of his life; thinking that patience is the highest good, he (should choose) one of (the described three) good methods of entering Nirvana.
End of the Seventh Lecture, called Liberation.